Carbon Nanotubes, Quantum Dots and Dendrimers as Potential Nanodevices for Nanotechnology Drug Delivery Systems



  • Prashant Malik
  • Neha Gulati
  • Raj Kaur Malik
  • Upendra Nagaich


Nanotechnology deal with the particle size in nanometers. Nanotechnology is ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale. In nanotechnology mainly three types of nanodevices are described: carbon nanotubes, quantum dots and dendrimers. It is a recent technique used as small size particles to treat many diseases like cancer, gene therapy and used as diagnostics. Nanotechnology used to formulate targeted, controlled and sustained drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology embraces applications of nanoscience to pharmacy as nanomaterials and as devices like drug delivery, diagnostic, imaging and biosensor materials. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has provided more fine tuned diagnosis and focused treatment of disease at a molecular level.  



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Nanotechnology, Nanoparticles, Nanopharmaceuticals, Carbon nanotubes, Quantum Dots, Dendrimers




How to Cite

Malik P, Gulati N, Malik RK, Nagaich U. Carbon Nanotubes, Quantum Dots and Dendrimers as Potential Nanodevices for Nanotechnology Drug Delivery Systems. Scopus Indexed [Internet]. 2013 Nov. 30 [cited 2024 May 18];6(3):2113-24. Available from:



Review Articles


Alivisatos AP (1996). Semiconductor clusters nanocrystals and quantum dots. Science 271: 933-937.

Alivisatos AP, Gu W and Larabell C (2005). Quantum dots as cellular probes. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 7: 55-76.

Avouris, Phaedon, Dresselhaus, Gene, Dresselhaus and Mildred (2001). Growth mechanism of Carbon Nanotubes. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications. Heidelberg 80: 55-80.

Babu VR, Mallikarjun V, Nikhat SR and Srikanth G (2010). Dendrimers: A new carrier system for drug delivery. Int J Pharm Applied Sci 1: 1-10.

Bakalova, Zhelev Z and Ohbc H (2004). Quantum dots as photosensitizers. Nature Biotech 22: 1360-1361.

Balasubramanian J (2012). Dendrimer based nanotechnology. Discovery Pharmacy 1: 37-39.

Bharali DJ, Dier U, Davis PJ and Mousa SA (2009). Tetrac-conjugated quantum dots for diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer: An in vitro evaluation. Immun Endoc & Metab Agents in Med Chem 9: 219-223.

Broaders KE, Grandhe S and Fréchet JMJ (2011). A Biocompatible Oxidation-Triggered Carrier Polymer with Potential in Therapeutics. Journal of the American Chemical Society 133: 756-758.

Buhleier E, Wehner W and Vogtle F (1978). Synthesis of molecular cavity topologies. Synthesis 2: 155-158.

Chen Y and Rosenzweig Z (2002). Luminescent CdS quantum dots as selective ion probes. Anal Chem 74: 5132-5138.

Choi JS, Choi YH and Park JS (2004). Characterization of Linear Polymer-Dendrimer Block Copolymer/Plasmid DNA Complexes: Formation of Core-shell Type Nanoparticles with DNA and Application to Gene Delivery in Vitro. Bull Korean Chem Soc 25: 1025-1030.

Dey NS and Rao MEB (2011). Quantum dot: Novel carrier for drug delivery. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci 2: 448-458.

Eichman JD, Bielinska AU, Latallo JFK and Baker JR (2000). The use of PAMAM dendrimers in the efficient transfer of genetic material into cells. PSTT 3: 232-245.

Ekimov AI and Onushchenko AA (1981). Quantum size effect in three-dimensional microscopic semiconductor crystals. JETP Lett 34: 345-349.

Elhissi AMA, Ahmed W, Hassan IU, Dhanak VR and D’Emanuele A (2012). Carbon Nanotubes in Cancer Therapy and Drug Delivery. J Drug Deliv 1-10.

Esfand R and Tomalia DA (2001). Poly (amidoamine) (pamam) dendrimers: From biomimicry to drug delivery and biomedical applications. Drug Discov Today 6: 427-436.

Fakhr FA, Khanafari A, Baserisalehi M, Yaghoobi R and Shahghasempour S (2012). An investigation of antileukemia activity of violacein-loaded dendrimer in Jurkat cell lines. African Journal of Microbiology Research 6: 6235-6242.

Fakruddin M, Hossain Z and Afroz H (2012). Prospects and application of nanobiotechnology: a medical perspective. J Nanobiotechnol 10: 1-8.

Gajbhiye V, Kumar PV, Tekade RK and Jain NK (2007). Pharmaceutical and biomedical potential of PEGylated dendrimers. Curr Pharmac Des 13: 415-429.

Gary D (2010). Organic and Biomaterials Chemistry - Lecture 27.

Gerard VA, Maguire CM, Bazou D and Gunko YK (2011). Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics. J Nanobiotechnol 9: 1-7.

Grace T (2003). An introduction to carbon nanotubes. Cpima Ret 1-14.

Gulati N and Gupta H (2012). Nanomedicine: Potential devices for diagnostics. Recent Patents on Nanomedicine 2: 146-155.

Gulati N and Gupta H (2012). Two faces of carbon nanotube: toxicities and pharmaceutical applications. Critical ReviewsTM in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems 29: 65-88.

Gupta M and Sharma V (2011). Targeted drug delivery system: A review. Res J Chem Sci 1: 135-138.

Haniu H, Saito N, Matsuda Y, Usui Y, Aoki K, Shimizu M, Ogihara N, Hara K, Takanashi S, Okamoto M, Nakamura K, Ishigaki N, Tsukahara T and Kato H (2012). Manufacturing strategy for multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a biocompatible and innovative material. J Nanotechnol: 1-6. Article ID 937819, 10.1155/2012/937819.

Hari BNV, Kalaimagal K, Porkodi R, Gajula PK and Ajay JY (2012). Dendrimer: Globular nanostructured materials for drug delivery. Int J Pharm Tech Res 4: 432-451.

Heuser LS, and Miller FN (1986). Differential macromolecular leakage from the vasculature of tumors. Cancer 57: 461-464.

Hirlekar R, Yamagar M, Garse H, Vij M and Kadam V (2009). Carbon nanotubes and its applications: A review. Asian J Pharm Clinical Res 2: 17-27.

Hoet, Peter HM, Hohlfeld B, Irene and Salata OV (2004). Nanoparticles-known and unknown health risks. J Nanobiotechnol 2: 12.

Holister P, Vas CR and Harper T (2003). Dendrimers. Clentifica : 1-15.

Hou PX, Liu C and Cheng HM (2008). Purification of carbon nanotubes. Carbon 46: 2003-2025.

How CW, Abdullah R and Abbasalipourkabir R (2011). Physicochemical properties of nanostructured lipid carriers as colloidal carrier system stabilized with polysorbate 20 and polysorbate 80. African J Biotechnol 10: 1684-1689.

Huggins ML (1941). Generalized Integral Equations of Classical Fluids. J Chem Phys 9: 440-446.

Iijima S (1991). Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354: 56-58.

Jafari M, Aghamiri SF and Khaghanic G (2011). Batch Adsorption of Cephalosporins Antibiotics from Aqueous Solution by Means of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. World Applied Sciences Journal 14: 1642-1650.

Jain S, Uchegbu IF, Betageri G and Pastorin G (2011). Nanotechnology in advanced drug delivery. J Drug Deliv 2.

Jamieson T, Bakhshi R, Petrova D, Pocock R, Imani M and Seifalian AM (2007). Biological applications of quantum dots. Biomaterials 28: 4717-4732.

Klajnert B and Bryszewska M (2001). Dendrimers: properties and applications. Acta Biochimica Pol 48: 199-208.

Kobayashi H, and Brechbiel MW (2005). Nano-sized MRI contrast agents with dendrimer cores. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 57: 2271-2286.

Kukowska JFL, Candido KA and Cao Z (2005). Nanoparticle targeting of anticancer drug improves therapeutic response in animal model of human epithelial cancer. Cancer Res 65: 5317-5324.

Kushwaha SKS, Rastogl A, Rai AK and Singh S (2012). Novel drug delivery system for anticancer drug: A review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 4: 542-553.

Langereis S, Dirksen A, Hackeng TM, Genderen MHP and Meijer EW (2007). Dendrimers and magnetic resonance imaging. New J Chem 31: 1152-1160.

Lecuit M, Ohayon H, Braun L, Mengaud J and Cossart P (2001). Stem cell internal in of listeria monocytogenes with an intact leucine: 369-377.

Lijima S, and Ichihashi T (1993). Single shell carbon nanotubes of 1 nm diameter. Nature 363: 603-605.

Liu Y, Ng KY and Lillehei KO (2003). Cell-mediated immunotherapy: a new approach to the treatment of malignant glioma. Cancer Control 10: 138-147.

Liu Z, Chen K, Davis C, Sherlock S, Cao Q, Chen X and Dai H (2008). Drug delivery with carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer treatment. Cancer Res 68: 6652-6660.

Liversidge GG and Cundy KC (1995). Particle size reduction for improvement of oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs: I. Absolute oral bioavailability of nanocrystalline danazol in beagle dogs. Int J Pharm 125: 91-97.

Maeda H, Wu J, Sawa T, Matsumura Y and Hori K (2000). Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: A review. J Controlled Release 65: 271-284.

Maheshwari PV and Gupta NV (2012). Advances of nanotechnology in healthcare. Int J Pharm Tech Res 4: 1221-1227.

Malodia K, Singh SK, Mishra DN and Shrivastava B (2012). Nanoparticles: An advance technique for drug delivery. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 3: 1186-1208.

Mananghaya M, Rodulfo E, Santos GN and Villagracia AR (2012). Theoretical investigation on the solubilisation in water of functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes. J Nanotechnol 1-6.

Maravajhala V, Papishetty S and Bandlapalli S (2012). Nanotechnology in development of drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Sci Res 3: 84-96.

Medintz IL, Clapp AR, Mattoussi H, Goldman ER, Fisher B, and Mauro JM (2003). Nat Mater 2: 630-638.

Mercer RR, Hubbs AF, Scabilloni JF, Wang L, Battelli LA, Berry DS, Castranova V, and Porter DW (2010). Distribution and persistence of pleural penetrations by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 7: 1-11.

Mishra P, Vyas G, Harsoliya MS, Pathan JK, Raghuvanshi D, Sharma P, and Agarwal A (2011). Quantum dot probes in disease diagnosis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci Res 1: 42-46.

Miyazaki K, and Islam N (2007). Nanotechnology systems of innovation- An analysis of industry and academia research activities. Technovation 27: 661-671.

Murray CB, Sun S, Gaschler W, Doyle H, Betley TA, and Kagan CR (2001). Colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal superlattices. IBM J Res & Dev 45: 47-56.

Nanjwadea BK, Bechra HM, Derkara GK, Manvia FV, and Nanjwade VK (2009). Dendrimers: Emerging polymers for drug-delivery systems. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 38: 185-196.

Nennig H, and Yang H (2009). Study of tissue adhesiveness of dendrimer hydrogel for ocular drug delivery: 1-3.

Niyogi S, Hamon MA, Hu H, Zhao B, Bhowmik P, Sen R, Itkis ME, and Haddon RC (2002). Chemistry of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Acc Chem Res 35: 1106-1112.

Pandya DP, Chaudhari MJ, Thakkar PP, Soni AM, and Bharadia PD (2012). Dendrimer: A Novel Polymer. Int J Pharm Res Schol 1: 404-420.

Pantarotto D, Partidos C, Hoebeke J, Brown F, Kramer E, and Briand J (2003). Immunization with peptide-functionalized carbon nanotubes enhances virus-specific neutrilizing antibody responses. Chem Biol 10: 961-966.

Papagiannaros A, Upponi J, Hartner W, Mongayt D, Levchenko T, and Torchilin V (2010). Quantum dot loaded immunomicelles for tumor imaging. BMC Medical Imaging 10: 1-9.

Patel SN, Sethi P, Ansari K, Tiwari D, Sharma A, and Singhai AK (2010). Dendrimers- A novel drug delivery system. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences 1: 382-388.

Prabhakar C, and Krishna KB (2011). A review on carbon nanotubes. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2: 850-854.

Prickett WM, Rite BDV, Resasco DE, and Harrison RG (2011). Vascular targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for near-infrared light therapy of cancer. Nanotechnology 22: 1-7.

Puzari A (2011). Liquid crystalline dendrimer: Towards intelligent functional materials. Liquid Crystalline Organic Compounds and Polymers as Materials of the ΧΧІ Century: From Synthesis to Applications: 95-124.

Qian D, Wagner GJ and Liu WK (2002). Mechanics of carbon nanotubes. Appl Mech Rev 55: 495-533.

Reddy ST, Rehor A, Schmoekel HG, Hubbell JA and Swartz MA (2006). In vivo targeting of dendritic cells in lymph nodes with poly (propylene sulfide) nanoparticles. Journal of Controlled Release 112: 26-34.

Reed MA, Randall JN, Aggarwal RJ, Matyi RJ, Moore TM and Wetsel AE (1988). Observation of discrete electronic states in a zero-dimensional semiconductor nanostructure. Phys Rev Lett 60: 535-537.

Romero EL (2012). The involvement of nano-drug delivery in biosafety issues. Biosafety 1: 1-6.

Rummeli MH, Ayala P and Pichler T (2010). Carbon nanotubes and related structures: Production and formation. Edited by Dirk M. Guldi and Nazario Martin:1-21.

Sahoo NG, Bao H and Pan Y (2011). Functionalized carbon nanomaterials as nanocarriers for loading and delivery of a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug: a comparative study. Chemical Communications 47: 5235-5237.

Salvetat JP, Bonard JM, Thomson NH, Kulik AJ, Forr´o L, Benoit W and Zuppiroli L (1999). Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes. Appl Phys A 69: 255-260.

Sato I, Shibata T, Ohtake K, Kodaka R, Hirokawa Y, Shirai N and Soai K (2000). Synthesis of chiral dendrimers with a hydrocarbon backbone and application to the catalytic enentioselective addition of dialkylzincs to aldehydes. Tetrahedron Letters 41: 3123-3126.

Saxena A, Singh A, Chouhan D and Nigam R (2012). Dendrmers: A new class of nanoscale polymer for healthcare system. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2: 44-52.

Singh GPB, Baburao C, Pispati V, Pathipati H, Muthy N, Prassana SRV and Rathode BG (2012). Carbon nanotubes- A novel drug delivery system. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry 2: 523-532.

Singh P (2007). Dendrimers and their applications in immunoassays and clinical diagnostics. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 48: 1-9.

Sinha N and Yeow JTW (2005). Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications. Nanobioscience 4: 180-195.

Smith AM, Duan H, Mohs AM and Nie S (2008). Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 60: 1226-1240.

Snow M (2010). Novel approaches to breast cancer therapy: Evaluation of next generation dendrimers for drug delivery. A Senior Scholars Thesis: 1-23.

Tomalia DA, Baker H, Dewald J, Hall M, Kallos G and Martin S (1985). A new class of polymers: Starburst-Dendritic macromolecules. Polymer J 17: 117-132.

Tomalia DA, Naylor AN and Goddard II WA (1990). Ngew Angew. Chem Int Ed Engl 29: 138.

Tomalia DA, Reyna LA and Svenson S (2007). Dendrimers as multipurpose nanodevices for oncology drug delivery and diagnostic imaging. Biochem Soc Trans 35: 61-67.

Touzani R (2011). Dendrons, dendrimers new materials for environmental and science applications. J Mater Environ Sci 2: 201-214.

Trivedi V, Patel U, Bhimani B, Daslaniya D, Patel G and Vyas B (2012). Dendrimer: Polymer of 21st century. Int J Pharm Res Bio-Sci 1: 1-21.

Turton R (1995). The quantum dots. Oxford University Press, pp. 212, 254.

Weller H (1993). Colloidal semiconductor Q-particles: Chemistry in the transition region between solid state and molecules. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 32: 41-53.

Yang F, Fu DL, Long J and Ni QX (2008). Magnetic lymphatic targeting drug delivery system using carbon nanotubes. Medical Hypotheses 70: 765-767.

Yang F, Hu J and Yang D (2009). Pilot study of targeting magnetic carbon nanotubes to lymph nodes. Nanomedicine 4: 317-330.

Yang H and Leffler CT (2013). Hybrid dendrimer hydrogel/poly (Lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle platform: An advanced vehicle for topical delivery of antiglaucoma drugs and a likely solution to improving compliance and adherence in glaucoma management. J Ocular Pharmacol and Therap 29: 166-172.