Bilayer Floating Tablets for Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System



  • Sai Sowjanya Palla
  • Rajkumar Kotha
  • Anusha Paladugu
  • E. Rajesh Kumar Reddy
  • Suryasri Lavanya Adavi
  • K. Ramamohan Reddy


Oral delivery of the drug is by far the most preferable route of drug delivery due to the ease of administration, patient compliance and flexibility in the formulations but has a drawback of non-site specificity and short gastric resident time. In recent years, scientific and technological advancements have been made in the development of novel drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological troubles such as short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times. Among Several approaches of floating systems, Bilayer floating technology is considered as promising approach. It combines the principle of bilayer technology and floating mechanism. The combined principle of bilayer floating tablet helps to release initial dose from the immediate release layer to reach the plasma concentration and then the floating layer absorbs gastric fluid forming an impermeable colloidal gel barrier on its surface, maintains a bulk density less than unity and thereby remains buoyant in stomach providing steady state concentration of drug in system. This review focuses on bilayer floating tablet technology a new era of gastro retentive drug delivery system, its advantages over conventional tablets and it also summarizes the bilayer tablet presses used in the industry, formulation design and evaluation parameters of bilayer floating tablets.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Novel drug delivery systems, floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), Floating layer and immediate release layer




How to Cite

Palla SS, Kotha R, Paladugu A, Reddy ERK, Adavi SL, Reddy KR. Bilayer Floating Tablets for Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System. Scopus Indexed [Internet]. 2013 Nov. 30 [cited 2024 Apr. 21];6(3):2097-112. Available from:



Review Articles


Ami1 M, Krunal S, Hejal1 P and Yogi P (2012). Advancements in controlled release gastro retentive drug delivery systems: A Review. J. Drug Delivery & Therapeutics 2(3):12-21.

Anisul Q and Karl KA (2006). Comparative study of current Superdisintegrants. Pharmaceutical Technology Oct 1.

Aulton ME (2002). Bilayer Tablets in Pharmaceutics, The Science of dosage form design, Churchill livingstone 2nd ed: 414-418.

Babu VBM and Khar RK (1990). In vitro and In vivo studies of sustained release floating dosage forms containing salbutamol sulphate. Pharmazie 45: 268-270.

Bardonett PL, Faivre V, Pugh WJ, Piffaretti J C, Falson F (2006). Gastroretentive dosage forms: Overview and special case of Helicobacter pylori. J. Controlled Release 2006 Mar 10 111(1-2): 1-18.

Barhate SD, Rupnar Y, Rahane R and Patel MM (2010). Formulation optimization of bilayer floating tablet of famotidine. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 1(4): 613-621.

Bhavesh S, Surendra G and Sanjay S (2008). Formulation and Evaluation of Bi-layer Tablet of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride and Ibuprofen. AAPS Pharm SciTech 9(3): 818-827.

Biswal B, Patel MB and Bhandari A (2011). Formulation and in-vitro characterization of Trimetazidine dihydrochloride Floating Bilayer matrix release Tablets. ARPB 1(1): 28-34.

Borkar SN, Suresh R, Sawant VA, Shende VS, Mokale VJ and Dama G (2010). An Approach to formulate Bilayered gastro retentive floating drug delivery system of cefpodoxime proxetil. Int. J Chem. Tech Research 2(2): 1229-1242.

Cargill R, Cadwell LJ, Engle K, Fix JA, Porter PA and Gardner CR (1988). Controlled gastric emptying: I. Effects of physical properties on gastric residence times of non disintegrating geometric shapes in beagle dogs. Pharm Res. 5: 533-536.

Chandira RM, Yasir Arafath AAM, Bhowmik D, Jayakar B and Kumar KPS (2012). Formulation and Evaluation of Bilayered Floating Tablets of Metformin Hydrochloride. The Pharma Innovation 1(5).

Chawla G, Gupta P, Koradia V and Bansal AK (2003). Gastro retention: A Means to address regional variability in intestinal drug absorption. Pharm Tech. 27: 250-268.

Chien YW (1992). Oral drug delivery and delivery system in novel drug delivery Systems, ed, 50, Marcel Dekker publication, New York.

Desai S and Bolton S (1993). Floating controlled- release drug delivery systems: In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation. Pharm. Res. 10: 1321-132.

Deshpande RD, Gowda DV, Mahammed N and Maramwar DN (2011). Bi-Layer Tablets- An Emerging Trend: A Review. Int. J of Pharmaceutical Sciences and research 2(10): 2534-2544.

Dhumal RS, Rajmane ST, Dhumal ST and Pawar AP (2006).Design and evaluation of bilayer floating tablets of cefuroxime axetil for bimodal release. J. Scientific Industrial Research 65: 812-816.

Dinakaran SK, Santhosh Kumar, David B, Harani A and Venkateshwar Rao (2011). Formulation and evaluation of bi-layer floating tablets of ziprasidone HCl and trihexyphenidyl HCl. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 47: 545-553.

Divya A, Kavitha K, Kumar MR, Dakshayani S and Jagadeesh Singh SD (2011). Bilayer tablet technology: An overview. J of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 1(8): 43-47.

Gahiwade HP, Patil MV, Tekade BW, Thakare VM and Patil VR (2012). Formulation And In-Vitro Evaluation Of Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride Bilayer Floating Tablet. IJPBS 2(1): 166-172.

Gansbeke BV, Timmermans J, Schoutens A and Moes AJ (1991). Intragastric positioning of two concurrently ingested pharmaceutical matrix dosage forms. Nucl Med Biol 18: 711-718.

Garg R and Gupta GD (2008). Progress in Controlled Gastroretentive Delivery. Tropical J Pharma Research 7(3): 1055-1066.

Gerbino PP (2005). Remington: The science and practice of pharmacy. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp: 916-918.

Gergogiannis YS, Rekkas DM, Dallos PP and Chailis NH (1993). Floating and swelling characteristics of various excipients used in controlled release technology. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 19: 1061-1081.

Gopalakrishnan S and Chenthilnathan A (2011). Floating Drug Delivery Systems: A Review. J Pharma Sci Technology 3(2): 548-554.

Guyton and Hall (1996). Text Book of Medical Physiology, 9th Edition, W.B. Sounders Company, pp: 845.

Jitendra J, Bhavna H, Patani MR and Patel M (2011). Formulation and Evaluation of Indomethacin Bilayer Sustained Release Tablets. Int J. PharmTech Research 3(2): 1132-1138.

Klausner A, Lavy E, Friedman M and Hoffman A (2003). Expandable gastroretentive dosage form. J. Control. Rel. 90: 143-162.

Klausner EA, Lavy E, Stepensky D, Cserepes E, Batra M, Freidman M and Hoffman A (2003). Furosemide pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following gastroretentive form administration to healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacology 43: 711-720.

Krishnarajan D, Dhumal R, Manivannan R, Parthiban KG and Chandra S (2011). Formulation and evaluation of Baclofen Bilayer floating Tablets using HPMC K4M as release retardant polymer. Deccan J. Pharmaceutics & Cosmetology 2(3): 8-16.

Kulkarni A and Bhatia M (2009). Development and Evaluation of regioselective Bilayer floating tablets of Atenolol and Lovastatin for biphasic release profile. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 8(1): 15-25

Kumar MV, Krishnarajan D, Manivannan R and Parthiban KG (2011). Formulation and evaluation of bi-layer domperidone floating tablets. IJPSR 2(8): 2217-2225.

Kumar PD, Rathnam G, Prakash CR, Saravanan G, Karthick V and Selvam T (2010). Formulation and characterization of bilayer floating tablets of ranitidine. Rasayan J. Chem 3(2).

Kumar PN, Elango K, Devi Damayanthi R and Vignesh Babu S (2012). Formulation and Evaluation of Bilayer Tablets of Losartan Potassium For Immediate Release (IR) and Metformin Hydrochloride For Sustained Release (SR). IJPI’s J Pharma and Cosmetology 2(8): 38-42.

Li S, Lin S, Daggy BP, Mirchandani HL and Chien YW (2003). Effect of HPMC and Carbopol on the release and floating properties of gastric floating drug delivery system using factorial design. Int J Pharm. 253: 13-22.

Mahesh DC, Jain P, Chaudhari S, Shear S and Pradeep R V (2006). Novel sustained release, swellable and bioadhesive gastroretentive drug delivery system for Ofloxacin. Int J Pharm. 316: 86–92.

Mazer N, Abisch E, Gfeller JC, Laplancehe R, Bauerfeind P and Cucala M (1988). Intragastric behaviour and absorption kinetics of a normal and ‘Floating modified release capsule of Isradipine under fasted and fed conditions. J Pharm. Sci. 8: 647-654.

Mehta RM (1997). Pharmaceutics-I. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Vallabh prakashan: pp 108.

Mojaverian P, Vlasses PH, Kellner PE and Rocci ML (1988). Effects of gender, posture, and age on gastric residence time of indigestible solid: pharmaceutical considerations. Pharm Res 10: 639-664.

Mojaverian P, Vlasses PV, Kellner PE and Rocci ML (1988). Effect of gender, posture and age on residence time of an in digestible solid Pharmaceutical considerations. Pharm. Res. 5(10): 639-644.

Muller-Lissner SA and Blum AL (1981). The effect of specific gravity and eating on gastric emptying of slow release capsules. New Engl J Med. 304: 1365-1366.

Nayak AK, Maji R and Das B (2010). Gastro retentive drug delivery systems: A Review. Asian J Pharmaceutical and Clin Res 3(1): 2-10.

Nurten OZ, Sefika Ordu, Yalc and In O zkan (2000). Studies of Floating Dosage Forms of Furosemide: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of Bilayer Tablet Formulations. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 26(8): 857–866.

Ostwal PP, Shrikhande VN, Mahajan NM, Jadhav YL, Jain MS and Sumit P (2012). A Review – Bilayer floating drug delivery system. Am. J. PharmTech Res 2(3).

Oth M, Franze M, Timmermans J and Moes A (1992). The bilayer-floating capsule: a stomach directed drug delivery system for misoprostol. Pharm Res. 9: 298-302.

Patel D, Mahajan AK,Gashadiya R, Patel A and Pandya T (2012). Formulation and Evaluation of bilayer floating tablet for gastric retention. IJPRBS 2: 191-214.

Patel GM (2007). Floating drug delivery system: An innovative approach to prolong gastric retention.

Patel M, Sockan GN, Kavitha and Tamizh M (2010). Challenges In The Formulation of Bilayered Tablets: A Review. Int. J. of Pharma Research and Development 2(10): 30-42.

Patel VF and Patel NM (2006). Intragastric floating drug delivery system of Cefuroxime axetil: In-vitro evaluation. AAPS Pharm SciTech 7(1): E1-E7.

Patil DM, Pathade PA and Bairagi VA (2011). Design and evaluation of bilayer floating tablets of amoxicillin try hydrate. Int J. Res. Pharma.Sci 2(2).

Patil SS, Hiremath D, Basha KM and Udupi RH (2012). Design and In-vitro Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Bilayer Floating Tablets of Rosiglitazone Maleate. Int J Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 3(1): 204-210.

Rahman Z, Mushir ali and Khar RK (2006). Design and evaluation of bilayer floating tablets of captopril. Acta Pharm. 56: 49–57.

Santhanalakshmi G, Elango K, Ramesh Kumar K and Farheen F (2011). Formulation and evaluation of bilayer floating tablets of trimetazidine hydrochloride and metoprolol succinate. Indian J. Pharmaceutical education and research. 46(3): 259-264.

Sawicki W (2001). Pharmacokinetics of verapamil and nor verapamil from controlled release floating pellets in humans. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 53: 29-35.

Shah SH, Patel JK and Patel NV (2009). Stomach specific floating drug delivery system: A review. Int. J. Pharm Tech Research 1(3): 623-633

Shrikant M, Shah S and Upadhyay P (2012). Floating Bilayer drug delivery systems- An Unconventional approach in Conventional Form. Am. J. PharmTech Res 2(2).

Singh BN, Kim KH (2000). Floating drug delivery systems: An approach to oral controlled drug delivery via gastric retention. J. Controlled release. 63: 235-259.

Sarfaraz MD, Reddy PK, Udupi RH and Doddayya H (2012). Formulation and In- Vitro Evaluation of Bilayer Floating tablets of Tramadol Hydrochloride. Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res. 4(3): 335-47.

Timmermans J and Moes AJ (1994). Factors controlling the buoyancy and gastric retention capabilities of floating matrix capsules: new data for reconsidering the controversy. J Pharm Sci. 83: 18-24.

Toratora, G (2010). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 19th Edition, Jhon Wiely and Sons, London pp: 833.

Whitehead L, Collet JH, Fell JT, Sharma HL and Smith AM (1998). Floating dosage forms: an in vivo study demonstrating prolonged gastric retention. J Control Release 55: 3-12.

Whitehead L, Collett JH and Fell JT (2000). Amoxicillin release from a floating dosage form based on alginates. Int J Pharm. 210: 45-49.

Wilson CG and Washington N (1989). The stomach: its role in oral drug delivery. In: Rubinstein MH, ed. Physiological Pharmaceutical: Biological Barriers to Drug Absorption. Chichester, UK: Ellis Horwood. Pp 47-70.

Wilson KRW and Waugh A (1996). Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness.9th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone.

Wong DSL (2000). Prolonged release active agent dosage form adapted for gastric retention. US Patent.6: 120,803.

Yyas SP and Roop KK (2002). Controlled Drug Delivery Concepts and Advances, First Edition, New Delhi; 196-217.